InnovationQ will be updated on Sunday, May 20, from 10am - noon ET. You may experience brief service interruptions during that time.
Browse Prior Art Database

Limitations in LNG Vaporization Process Selection

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000217642D
Publication Date: 2012-May-10

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

This text was extracted from a PDF file.
This is the abbreviated version, containing approximately 10% of the total text.

Page 01 of 14

Limitations in LNG Vaporization Process Selection

 Joseph H. Cho, Ph.D., P.E. Principal Technical Professional Gopal Mathur
Technical Professional Leader

Heinz Kotzot

Section Leader, LNG & Gas Processing Charles Durr
Director LNG, GTL and Gas Processing

Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc.

Houston, Texas 77002

Prepared for Presentation at the AlChE 2005 Spring National Meeting

5th Topical Conference on Natural Gas Utilization

Copyright Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc.

April 10-14, 2005


AIChE shall not be responsible for statements or opinions contained in papers or printed in its publications.

Page ] of 14

KBR Paper:.#f1898

Page 02 of 14


    The optimum choice of an LNG vaporization system for an LNG terminal facility is primarily affected by the terminal's site selection, the environmental conditions, regulatory limitations and operability considerations.

    The selection of the vaporization process is influenced by the permit approval process. In order to comply with the I_NG industry's demands for minimizing life cycle costs, many vaporization processes have been proposed and developed

    This paper reviews the environmental issues imposed on LNG vaporization processes and discusses the technical and economical features of viable vaporization processes. The processes discussed in this paper include the following:

¯ Open Rack Vaporizers with seawater;
¯ Submerged Combustion Vaporizers with Selective Catalytic Reduction units;
¯ Shell and Tube Vaporizers with closed loop heating medium circulation and Fired

  Heaters with flue gas Condensing Heat Exchangers;
¯ Shell and Tube Vaporizers with closed loop heating medium circulation and Reverse

  Cooling Towers;
¯ Ambient Air Vaporizers with supplemental Fired Heaters.

    A life cycle cost comparison of each process configuration is included to assist in the process selection.

Page 2 of 14

KBR Paper # 1898

Page 03 of 14

Limitations in LNG Vaporization Process Selection


    The choice of vaporization process affects not only the terminal's capital expenditure, but can have a significant impact on its operating cost. Studies have shown that for a Submerged Combustion Vaporizer (SCV) system the fuel cost can be about 40% of the terminal operating cost with a 1,000 MMScfd send-out rate. The vaporization system determines the terminal's emission rate.

    The baseload Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) regasiflcation terminals have primarily used two types of vaporizers: Open Rack Vaporizer (ORV) and SCV. In addition to these vaporizers, several other types of vaporizers have been used. These include the Shell and Tube Exchange Vaporizer (STV) with or without intermediate fluid. Currently, many different vaporizers and vaporization schemes have been developed that use either one type of vaporizer or a combination of different types of vaporizers.

    Selection of the vaporization process is important for the fit-for-purpose design of the terminal. The selected process should be economical and reliable,...